Essay 1 (200 words a forest is known as an intricate ecosystem that is densely covered with trees, shrubs, grasses and mosses. Many plant and animal species widely distributed in the past have either become extinct or can only be found in some localized areas at very low population densities. Regulating regional climate, when trees are planted in cities, they can help to ease the heat island effect and provide cooling shade for homes and buildings, reducing energy usage for air conditioning in the summer. In each of the selected hills, 9 sample plots (3 plots on each topography, namely, top hill, middle hill, and bottom hill; about 100 m apart from each other) of sizes 20 m 20 m were demarcated for final study. From the fresh air we breathe to the wood we require to build the bed we sleep on Everything is derived from forests. Population pressure, overcropping, soil erosion, indiscriminate illegal logging in forest areas, lack of suitable land, shifting cultivation with shortened fallow period (3-4 years) 7, 15, 17 20 result in falling yields and drastic loss of forest coverage leading to land degradation.
This may be due to the anthropogenic disturbances that cause disruption of forest structure and changes in species composition ultimately leading to reduction of tree species richness and abundance. The result shows that only 36 of the tree species (17 out of 47) are regenerating in the study area, meaning majority of the tree species (64) are not getting favorable conditions to regenerate. The establishment of protected areas and parks often allow for development of trails for hiking, snow sports, and bird-watching, providing people who live outside of forests with a refuge for recreation, tourism, and educational activities. This layer is composed of shrubs, bushes and trees that are used to grow and live in canopys shade. Only 36 of the tree species (17 out of 47) are regenerating in the study area, meaning majority of the tree species (64) are not getting favorable conditions to regenerate.