populations. Inclusive fitness theory and eusociality. She notes that just as a trait that makes one a preferred mate can be elaborated by sexual selection, a trait that makes one a preferred social partner can also give big fitness advantages. There are some extended phenotypic effects in which the cascade of genetic action reaches outside the body. A lion is a vehicle for its genes, constructed by a cooperative of genes as a shared ark to carry them forward to the future, house them and protect them until it is ready to pass them. Also, there is interpretive choice in whether one considers the functional phenotype as "really" existing at the individual level (which it must to initiate the feedback pathway or as "really" existing at the group level (which it must to complete the feedback pathwayeventually, multiplying gene. Why would we remove an analytical tool from our toolbox? But suppose a few innovative members of the population introduce fitness-enhancing variation at a faster, but still low, rate compared to random variation. This gene selfishness will usually give rise to selfishness in individual behavior. These evolution-doubters were not rednecks; they were Harvard Medical students! . One can just say that some things are stronger, or longer-lasting, or more stable than others. Ed Wilson's main attack is on narrative procedure essay kin selectionhe finds it insufficiently explanatory and research-constricting.
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My reading of the study of cooperation by psychologists and anthropologists, and of the study of group competition by historians and political scientists, suggest that in fact human are nothing like bees. 2 Homo sapiens evolved neural adaptations to explore its physical environment, develop cognitive models of its causal structure, play out these models to invent tools and techniques which defeat argumentative essays on the negative side of aaron the defenses of plants and animals, trade this knowledge with other humans, and cooperate with them. In other cases the benefits may diverge: the warrior may stay at the rear, or sneak off to the side, and let everyone else fight. The evolution of cultural variants can lead to complex adaptations much faster than the evolution of genes alone because the work of creation and diffusion of favorable variants is distributed among many minds. I join Steven Pinker in opposing this loose sort of groupish thinking. . "Be warned he states, "that if you wish, as I do, to build a society in which individuals cooperate generously and unselfishly towards a common good, you can expect little help from biological nature. 17 ( Betzig, 1986 ; Otterbein, 2004 ).
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